Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors or artificial T cell receptors) are engineered receptors that combine a new specificity with an immune cell to target cancer cells. Typically, these receptors graft the specificity of a monoclonal antibody onto a T cell. The receptors are called chimeric because they are fused of parts from different sources. CAR-T cells are a new type of treatment that uses living cells that have been transformed.
The basic principle of CAR-T cell design involves recombinant receptors that combine antigen-binding and T-cell activating functions. The general premise of CAR-T cells is to artifically generate T-cells targeted to markers found on cancer cells. Scientists can remove T-cells from a person, genetically alter them, and put them back into the patient for them to attack the cancer cells. Once the T cell has been engineered to become a CAR-T cell, it act as a "living drug". CAR-T cells create a link between an extracellular ligand recognition domain to an intracellular signalling molecule which in turn activates T cells. The extracellular ligand recognition domain is usually a single-chain variable fragment (scFv). The question often poised regarding the safety of this treatment is how do you ensure that only the cancerous tumour cells are targeted and not normal healthy cells? The specificity and safety of CAR-T cells are determined by the choice of molecule that is targeted.
CAR-Ts can be derived from either patient's own blood (autologous) or derived from another healthy donor (allogenic). These T-cells are genetically engineered to express an artificial T cell receptor, through which they are targeted to disease-related antigens. This process is MHC independent and thus the targeting efficiency is greatly increased. These CAR-T cells are programmed to target antigens that are present on the surface of tumors. When they come in contact with the antigens on the tumors, the CAR-T cells are activated via the signal peptide, proliferate and become cytotoxic. The CAR-T cells destroy the cancer cells through mechanisms such as extensive stimulated cell proliferation, increasing the degree to which the cell is toxic to other living cells i.e. cytotoxicity, and by causing the increased production of factors that are secreted from cells in the immune system that have an effect on other cells in the organism. These factors are called cytokines and include interleukins, interferons and growth factors.
CAR-T cells are developed to be specific to an antigen expressed on a tumor that is not expressed on healthy cells. CD19 is expressed on B-cells throughout their development and as a result, CD19 is also expressed on nearly all B-cell malignancies. Additionally, CD19 is only expressed in the B-cell lineage and not in any other lineages or tissues. These malignancies include forms of cancer such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL), and many different forms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
This seminar is one of the top-ranked meetings in the field of next generation CAR & TCR-T cells in China. Through participating in it, you can learn more about the processing of technologies, the whole industry and the market of CAR-T cells, cell therapy, cell therapy clinical trials, immune check points, bispecific antibodies, double-tumor antigens in China. Welcome to this academic banquet! Bioon will try our best to provide an excellent platform for you to communicate with China's first-class experts and senior managers, as well as to expand your business in China!
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